“Most researchers and practitioners agree that self-concept is a powerful mediator between educational treatment and outcome variables (Marsh, 1990). For example, it has been shown that students with high self-efficacy performed at a high level, even exceeding their own self-expectations and were unaffected by most external conditions, while those who doubt their abilities generally did poorly. The latter group performed somewhat better in structured, well-defined situations which provided an opportunity for goal-setting and planning beforehand and feedback afterward (Tuckman & Sexton, 1992). Also, low self-esteem individuals have been shown to have more adverse affective, cognitive, and behavioral reactions to failure and negative feedback.” (Geisler-Bernstein, E., Schmeck, R.R., & Hetherington, J., p. 78)

Sensory Disabilities:

Instructors are encouraged to facilitate full participation of students by opening each course with a general statement on caring about students’ individual needs and inviting students to speak with them about these as well as inserting statements about alternative formats and practices in the syllabus for each course (McKeachie, 1999).

Provide opportunities for students to collaborate on class projects and assignments while clearly delineating the need for equal division of labor required by project.

Adapt or modify teaching methods utilizing more than one student learning modality (e.g. visual, auditory and kinesthesia) through the use of audio-visual materials during presentations, colorful highlighting of important content, technology applications, etc.

Cognitive/Learning Disabilities

Encourage students to access academic support services provided by the respective college.

Reinforce study and organizational skills through periodic discussions of how or what techniques students utilize (Iannuzzi, Strichart & Mangrum, 1994)

Need for increased study and work habits that will foster ability to balance academic demands with the need for personal freedom and relationship building as young adults (Hicks-Cooley & Kurtz, 1997; Strichart, Mangrum, and Iannuzzi, 1997).

Periodically model or provide examples of effective note taking via power point presentations or overhead projector.

Utilize guided notes (skeleton outlines that contain the main ideas and related concepts of a lecture) which include designated spaces for students to complete as the lecture/presentation occurs (Lazarus, 1996).